study the institutional context
In Zambia, Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland (all landlocked) aquaculture is handled by the ministry responsible for agriculture. Review of Industrial Organization, 22 (1): 67–84. Context of Scientific and Institutional Renewal in Islamic Higher Education (PTKI): A Study on Azyumardi Azra’s Thought 1998-2015 Azyumardi Azra’s Thought 1998-2015. Davidsson, P., & Henrekson, M. 2002. (1991). Competition and entrepreneurship. La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. Rome: FAO. A preliminary review of selected legislation governing aquaculture. Institutionalisation as a process of interplay between technology and its organisational context of use. The potential for warm water aquaculture in the SADC countries. 18). al. The regulation of entry. Within their frame new approaches to how to work with institutions can be tried. Kaufmann et al. (Renewable resources information series. Their adoption of a modified form of our Institutional Analysis and Development (LAD) framework for this important set of questions re-assures us that we met our goal. What's the catch? 3.8 Supply of Inputs. Hereditary customs and differences between these in patri-and matrilineal societies influence the adoption of aquaculture (van der Mheen-Sluijer et. London: Sage Publications. Environmental aspects, regulated in law, become the major regulatory aspect for small-scale aquaculture development. Noorderhaven, N., Thurik, A. R., Wennekers, A. R. M., & van Stel, A. Further, sub-regional cooperation could also enhance the research capacity by secondment of researchers and bilateral agreements on joint operation of a research facility. The low, often almost non-existent, salaries for some civil services works against all other inputs for improved institutional performance. The aquaculture sector is, as has often been stated, a small and young sector in sub-Saharan Africa. (1994). What works in securities laws? No attempt is made to venture into theories of organizational or institutional development. 1988, Wijkstrom et. 1989, ICLARM and GTZ 1991, Goevereh et. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 73 (1): 113–212. 1989. However, to become effective more profound institutional changes may in some cases be beneficial. It was stated above that departments often lack socio-economic and economic expertise to analyze data and information and provide a framework for policy and plan formulations. Capital-market imperfections and investment. Bowen, H. P., & Wiersema, M. 2004. Recent work on organizational and institutional development pays more attention to issues of motivation, incentive, reward and sanction (Moore, 1995). 1991. 4.4 Private Sector Extension Botswana and Lesotho, for example, have experienced such problems (Nermark et al 1994, David e Silva, 1993, Haight. Institutional development is a priority area for Norwegian assistance. What makes an entrepreneur? He argued that the contribution is highest in stagnant economies with idle resources. The ponds are small and located within an existing farm and the access rights (customary or modem law) also cover fish ponds. These context pieces were developed as part of the 'Managing institutional change through distributive leadership approaches: Engaging academics and teaching support staff in blended and flexible learning' project. (1990) define institutional arrangements as ".. the composite of laws, customs, organizations and management strategies established by society to allocate scarce resources and competing values for a social purpose...". Ackefors, H., Huner, J.V. These reforms have involved structural changes, reorganisation and adjustments to management arrangements. (ALCOM Field Document No. Email: email@example.com Oxford: Oxford University Press. Economic reform and the process of global integration. The majority of governmental fish farms should be reviewed with the aim of privatizing or closing them. Existing legislation, often more concerned with conservation than production, related to water abstraction, pollution, water or coastal and lakeshore rights, hinder the development of small-scale fish fanning (ICLARM and GTZ, 1991). Metodhandbok 90. Institutional pressures as sources of improvisations: A case study from a developing country context. al. 6.3 International Organizations © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The number of people who require training on different levels is therefore limited. European business systems: Firms and markets in their national context. Where is it going? We had no expectation for the specific influence of (lagged) Income per Capita. It describes the interdisciplinary project team and efforts to increase patient … The effect of entrepreneurial activity on national economic growth. ALCOM News, (13), 2-5. The future of aquaculture in Southern Africa. al. The picture of aquaculture management and administration is somewhat diverse in the SADC-countries in Africa. However, the plans and programmes often basically are lists of projects without clear links to policies and strategies. Wijkstrom, U. However, these activities are becoming important in parts of Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique, van der Berg (1996) describes the best documented example, in Madagascar. A measurement framework for international entrepreneurship policy research: From impossible index to malleable matrix. 1996). Houtte argues that for legal purposes the definition should be related more to the activity than to ownership. Governments have, in most of the sub-Saharan countries, supplied seed at highly subsidized prices. Therefore, in terms of establishing the context for HRM, culture consists of values, attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions about appropriate behavior that are shared in a society. The structure and governance of venture capital organizations. Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. Van der Mheen-Sluijer, J. However, a rather narrow understanding of the concept of institutions is applied, close to the formal definition of organizations: a structure within which people cooperate according to accepted and recognized roles. Claessens, S., & Laeven, L. 2003. Report of the Technical Consultation on Extension Methods for Smallholder Fish Farming in Southern Africa. An ICLARM study of aquaculture in Malawi (ICLARM and GTZ, 1991) states that the sector is unprotected by formal legislation and that customary law applies to aquaculture with few exceptions. ALCOM News, (19), 5-6. ALCOM (1991). Bebbington et. There is however, a considerable physical potential (Kapetsky, 1994). Examples of institutional context in a sentence, how to use it. It provides a background of the project, including the institutional context, a summary of the literature supporting patient portal implementation, as well as the national policies driving uptake. The study by Estrada-Robles et al. Review of Economic Studies, 62 (1): 53–82. Institution building, institutional development and strengthening of institutions were important aspects of development work in the 1960's and are again in fashion. In order to understand properly the significance of the PLOS ONE Study some historical context will be helpful. The government is dominant in research. A discussion paper. Manual for programme and project cycle management. The institutional context of science, models, and policy: The IIASA energy study Brian Wynne 1 Policy Sciences volume 17 , pages 277 – 320 ( 1984 ) Cite this article Staff of the governmental Nyanga Trout Research Center can conduct experiments of interest for the commercial farmers at that facility. Yet the entrepreneurship literature has focused largely on identifying the determinants of the level, rather than the type, of entrepreneurial activity. Small Business Economics, 19 (2): 81–104. Kihlstrom, R. E., & Laffont, J. J. Harare: FAO. The review concluded that more consistent policies, strategies, plans and programmes needed to be elaborated and that the close links between aquaculture and agriculture should be reflected to ensure sustainability. Neither did it find that the expansion of small-scale rural fish farming in sub-Saharan Africa was restrained by credit. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (2): 227–247. ALCOM (1993). 1999. We find that the allocation of entrepreneurial effort toward high-growth activities is positively related to a country's financial and educational activities targeted at entrepreneurship, and is negatively related to a country's level of corruption. Institutions, innovations, and growth. Formal merging of extension services has been done in Zimbabwe and is reportedly being attempted in Zambia. He also argued that the farmer (individual or household) derives an income in three ways from fish farming; direct net income, income in kind (through improving the household's cash balance) and through the "consumption effect". Paper presented at the DaNeNo Workshop, Utrecht. A. De Wit, G. 1993. This means that a substantial reallocation of funds between channels has occurred. The CPI data are available at http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi. In R. Whitley (Ed.) (ACDP/REP/89/42). Aid to Aquaculture, 5.2 Donor Agencies and Institutional Support, 5.3 FAO and the Development of Aquaculture Institutions, 6.1 While the department needs basic capabilities in these field it can augment the capacity by using resources from other departments and governmental bodies, it can hire short term consultants and it may obtain international expertise on a short term basis. Autio, E. 2005. http://esa.un.org/unpp. SIDA has also used a relatively simple model to categorize institutions as to their performance (Andersson, 1991): Stage 2. These experiences should be reviewed with respect to the effectiveness to reach targets and target groups. al. Harare: FAO. World Economic Forum 2005. There are other examples which seem to indicate a correlation between liberal macro-economic policies and development of small-scale aquaculture (Andreasson, 1992). Haight (in print). London: London Business School and Babson Park, MA: Babson College. (2005) describe this index as measuring “the quality of contract enforcement, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence”. Johnson, S., Kaufmann, D., & Shleifer, A. Hence, to avoid overlapping time periods, we calculated the value of any lagged variable as the average of its values over the period 1999–2001. Although credit at present is not regarded as an issue for small-scale aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa, the situation may change. Journal of Finance, 58 (6): 2401–2436. Hence, we suggest that effective measures to alleviate stigma should be based on ways of eliminating factors that cause institutional stigma. Small Business Economics, 24 (3): 293–309. Göteborg: Swedmar. 2 in OLS regression, in that it measures one minus the ratio of an error sum of squares to a total sum of squares. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Prithviraj S. Banerjee* Associate Professor … Dakhli, M., & De Clercq, D. 2004. Aquaculture research in Zimbabwe: Where is it now? Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. FAO is going through institutional changes of its own, focusing more on its normative role. (ALCOM Report No. Baptista , J. IRDCurrents, (11), 8-17. Such teams could, with the consent of the governments, work directly with provincial or district authorities, NGOs and the private sector. This has been achieved through emphasis on the national education system and on higher level training often through fellowships abroad. Wellesley, MA: Babson College. 1979. Definition of Institutional Context: The set of institutional characteristics such as rules, regulations, policies, cultural factors and so on. A few active associations are reported from Tanzania and Zambia, functioning as discussion clubs and (in Tanzania) to set the prices for the sale of fingerlings (van der Mheen, personal communication). 85 4. New York: Prentice-Hall. Summary of Changes with Effect on Aquaculture Institutions, 6.2 The small-scale aquaculture production in sub-Saharan Africa is mainly organized by the household within the frame of the farming system. The This lack of compiled information is detrimental also to project formulation. (GCP/INT/436/SWE.5). One element is whether the reservoir is on private or communal land. An understanding of these relationships and their social context deepens any appreciation of how law evolves. Schumpeter, J. Gaston, R. J. Because of lack of funds for renewals of subscriptions on scientific journals, magazines and handbooks, the holdings are usually outdated. Further, there is a lack of researchers representing these disciplines in administrations. Models of self-employment in a competitive market. GOVERNMENTS AND SMALL-SCALE AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT, 4. Harrison (1994) reports on attempts in Kenya to give up government supply of fingerlings, Coche et. What happened in Eastern Province? London: Palgrave Macmillan. CHANGE, 3. There are at present no requirements for licenses and permits for the establishment of small-scale rural fish ponds in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook two supplementary analyses in which either “regulatory protection” or “corruption” was dropped from Model 2. Published in: Project Management Journal Link to article, DOI: 10.1002/pmj.20271 Publication date: 2011 Document Version Peer reviewed version Link back to DTU Orbit Citation (APA): Geraldi, J., & Morris, P. W. G. (2011). al. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India PLoS One. 5.3 Feed suppliers could be another resource for private sector extension. However, more funds at the disposal of NGO's reveal their weaknesses and aid funds are also allocated to the strengthening of such organizations. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. It is safe to conclude that governments in general in sub-Saharan Africa have recognized the limitations of government supplies of inputs to small-scale aquaculture development. A documentation research project to study the complex issues facing the historical documentation of multi-institutional collaborations in physics and allied sciences. W7208, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189364. Miles, M. A., O'Grady, M., & Holmes, K. R. 2006. A fundamental question is: How should governments adjust their institutions to new situations and reach their objectives and targets with limited resources? Wennekers, A. R. M., & Thurik, A. R. 1999. ALCOM News, (7), 2-3. Martinez-Espinosa, M. (1995). Their weaknesses would seem to be similar to those of governmental or official channels for assistance; problems of reaching the grassroots levels and weak performance in relation to gender. 2661, World Bank, Washington, DC. The early hesitance about collaboration was changed. (1994) made a thorough review of aquaculture research in 12 countries.
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